Scientific Reasons Why Grid Girls are banned and Miss America Stopped Swimsuit Competitions

http://historyoffeminism.com/a-history-of-feminism/

 

“Feminism exists as a defender of the selfish sexual and reproductive interests of aging and/or unattractive women. This is its entire raison d’etre, the reason it first came into existence with the social purity movement reformers of the 19th century, led by their harridan battle cry – ‘armed with the ballot the mothers of America will legislate morality’”.

“The extent of female desire for involvement in the political process is directly proportionate to the threat that women feel in a free sexual market”.

“The history of feminism is the history of a female sexual trade union, growing in political power in exact correspondence with the steady loss of female sexual power caused by the continual widening of the sexual market. The opening up of the sex market, the ever-increasing opportunities for men to gain access to cheap and anonymous sex, is the result of constantly emerging new technology, and itself completely out of the hands of feminists, or anybody else, to control or put a stop to”.

https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/blog/insight-therapy/201401/feminine-foes-new-science-explores-female-competition

According to Joyce Benenson(link is external), a researcher at Emmanuel College in Boston, competition among women has three unique characteristics: first, because they have to protect their bodies from physical harm (so as not to interfere with present or future pregnancy and childbirth), women rely on veiled aggression towards other women (behind verbal gymnastics or under cover of the group) rather than physical confrontation.

Second, high status and very attractive women need less help and protection from other women and are less motivated to invest in other women (who represent potential competition). Thus, a woman who tries to distinguish or promote herself threatens other women and will encounter hostility. According to Benenson, a common way women deal with the threat represented by a remarkably powerful or beautiful woman is by insisting on standards of equality, uniformity, and sharing for all the women in the group and making these attributes the normative requirements of proper femininity.

Third, in extreme cases women may guard against potential competitors by means of social exclusion. If a new attractive woman shows up in the neighborhood (or school, or club), all the women in attendance may turn their backs on her, compelling her to withdraw from the scene, thus increasing their own chances with the surrounding males.

 

A number of recent studies provide further support for the existence of the ‘female competition’ phenomenon. For example, Jon Maner and James McNulty(link is external) of Florida State discovered that women’s testosterone levels went up when they (unknowingly) smelled t-shirts of ovulating young women, presumably in preparation for aggressive competition. Canadian researchers Tracy Vaillancourt and Aanchal Sharma(link is external), showed how women judge and condemn each other based on appearance. They arranged for female participants to interact with a young research assistant. Some of the participants saw the assistant dressed in revealing clothes while others saw her wearing jeans and a T-shirt. The researchers tracked participants’ responses to the assistant during the meeting and after she left the room. Results: The assistant was unanimously criticized when she wore revealing clothes and largely ignored when she wore regular attire. This study (and others) supports the evolutionary prediction: a more attractive woman (i.e., one who has more of what men like) will receive more hostility and less cooperation from other women because her presence threatens their own access to the evolutionary prize.

A central arena for competition between females is sexual behavior itself. Studies show that women tend to criticize and reject other women who are viewed by them as sexually promiscuous. The researcher Zhana Vrangalova and her colleagues at Cornell University recently surveyed 750 college students about their sexual behaviors and attitudes. Then, participants read a short description of a hypothetical person (of their own sex) who had either two (nonpermissive) or twenty (permissive) past sexual partners. Participants then rated this potential friend on several friendship-relevant outcomes. Results(link is external) revealed that female participants, regardless of their own level of permissiveness, overwhelmingly preferred the nonpermissive potential friend. According to the researchers, this is because women want to guard their partners and because they fear socal stigma: if you go around with someone who’s known to be promiscuous (a “slut”), there is danger that the label will latch on to you, too.

 

This study and others align with the observation that women are often the chief enforcers of strict and sometimes cruel norms of female appearance and sexual behavior. For example, the ritual of female genital mutilation, still practiced in some Muslim countries in Africa, is primarily designed to make the girl into good ‘bride material’ for men. To that end, clitoridectomy reduces her ability to enjoy sex and therefore decreases the likelihood she’ll be tempted to cheat on her husband. Sewing the vaginal opening shut, which is often performed after the genital cutting, reduces the possibility that the girl will have sex before marriage, again benefitting the interests of the future husband. Still, this ceremony is managed, performed and enforced by women (mostly mothers and grandmothers).

Another example: Girls’ foot binding was a custom in China for over a thousand years (until it was outlawed in the early twentieth century). The ancient custom (which involved breaking the toes of the baby, folding them and binding the feet tightly for years) was valued primarily because women with small feet were considered more desirable sexually (in the eyes of men) and because a wife’s tiny, useless feet were evidence of the husband’s wealth (‘I’m so rich my woman doesn’t need to work; indeed she can’t’). In this case too, the main enforcers and managers were mothers and grandmothers.

The evolutionary explanation for these phenomena relies on the assumption that sex with a woman (and thus access to her uterus) is a biologically desirable and scarce resource for men. Among women of childbearing age, reducing the sexual ‘supply’ increases female bargaining power in the relationship economy. Thus, it pays for women to enforce sexual conservatism even at the cost of ostracizing and manipulating other women identified as permissive. Mothers and grandmothers, by the same logic, have a strong incentive to ensure that their daughters (who carry their genes) will become highly attractive to men, even at the price of causing them early suffering and mutilation.

Feminist psychology, however, argues that competition among females is driven primarily not by biological imperatives but rather by social mechanisms. According to this argument, cutthroat female competition is due mainly to the fact that women, born and raised in male-dominated society, internalize the male perspective (the “male gaze”) and adopt it as their own. The male view of women as primarily sexual objects becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. As women come to consider being prized by men their ultimate source of strength, worth, achievement and identity, they are compelled to battle other women for the prize.

In this sense, the feminist approach argues in effect that many women are beset by what Karl Marx called, ‘false consciousness.’ According to Marx, a factory worker who’s convinced that his enemy is another worker looking for a job has false consciousness because he does not understand that the true enemy is the owner of the factory, who sets workers against each other in order to subjugate them both and get rich on the value of their labor. Many women, according to this argument, refuse to see that the real threat to their achievement, power, value, and identity are not other women, but the male establishment that controls their lives.

Either way, female competition has a price, and not only on the political level. This competition produces much of the stress that interferes with the happiness of many women, especially young ones. Studies show(link is external) that compared to men, women tend to be more sensitive to emotional information and are better at decoding subtly encoded social and interpersonal messages. In addition, women’s sense of self-worth is based more on their friends’ opinions of them. This combination of acute awareness of–and sensitivity to–subtle social cues renders women more vulnerable to indirect interpersonal aggression.

For example, the researcher Christopher Ferguson(link is external) of Stetson University in Florida and his colleagues asked participants to watch two television programs (with a svelte and chubby female star) and interact with a woman (in attractive or casual attire). They found that participants’ mood and self-image were not affected by the TV shows but significantly affected by the live encounters. Interacting with an attractive woman dressed in flattering clothing led the participants to feel distressed and negative about their bodies, especially if the encounters were held in the presence of an attractive man.

At the end of the day, the tendency to engage in intra-sex competition appears to be a part of our genetic hardware and a feature in the heritage of human culture. Our genes and social habits are not easy to change, certainly not overnight. But the first step toward changing a habit is becoming aware of it. To that end, men may want to ask whether ‘getting the girl’ is worth the spilled blood and broken bones, while women may do well to reflect on whether the goal of getting a man (and his sperm and support) justifies the competitive tactics of manipulating, shaming or ostracizing other women and the pain it causes them.

 

Anal sex linked to increased risk of incontinence

(Reuters Health) – Anal sex may be linked to an increased risk of incontinence, particularly among men who have sex with men, a U.S. study suggests.

Researchers analyzed national health survey data from 6,150 adults and found 37 percent of women and about 5 percent of men reported trying anal intercourse at least once.

When they did, the women were 50 percent more likely than their peers to report having fecal incontinence at least once a month, while the men’s odds of incontinence were almost tripled.

“While this study does not give us data on the frequency of anal sex and the impact on fecal incontinence, we did see a relationship between the practice of anal sex and fecal incontinence, more so among men than women,” said lead author Dr. Alayne Markland of the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

“We just don’t know if someone who has anal sex one or two times is at the same increased risk for fecal incontinence compared to someone who has anal sex regularly,” Markland added by email.

Even though anal intercourse is common among both heterosexual and homosexual couples, little is known about how this practice might impact bowel function, Markland and colleagues note in the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

To assess how these two things might be related, the researchers reviewed responses to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys completed in 2009 and 2010 from adults 20 years and older.

The survey posed different questions to women and men, which might account for at least some of the differences in outcomes by gender in the study.

For women, the survey asked, “Have you ever had anal sex?”

But for men, the survey asked, “Have you ever had any kind of sex with a man, including oral or anal?”

To determine fecal incontinence, researchers reviewed responses to survey questions about leakage of mucus, liquid or stool occurring at least monthly.

Most adults who experience fecal incontinence have only occasional bouts of diarrhea. The condition can be chronic, however, and can be caused by muscle and nerve damage around the rectum, constipation, certain diseases and surgical procedures and by childbirth.

Overall, 8.3 percent of women and 5.6 percent of men in the study had fecal incontinence.

About 10 percent of women who had anal sex also had incontinence, compared with 7.4 percent of women who didn’t report this type of intercourse in the survey.

Almost 12 percent of men who had anal sex had incontinence, compared with about 5 percent of men who didn’t.

The results don’t prove anal sex causes incontinence, the authors note. They also lacked data on the frequency of anal sex, which might influence the results.

Even so, the findings suggest that doctors may want to discuss the possibility of a connection with patients, the authors conclude.

“These findings will likely become an important part of the patient education counseling physicians provide to their patients,” said William Whitehead, director of the Center for Functional GI and Motility Disorders at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

“While it is tempting to think that only the rare patient who is a gay male would benefit from such counseling, this study makes it clear that anal intercourse is a common practice that is not limited to gay men,” Whitehead, who wasn’t involved in the study, added by email.

More research is needed to understand how anal sex might lead to incontinence, though it’s possible that the practice contributes to decreased anal sphincter tone that leads to stool leakage in some people, Whitehead said.

“However, common sense suggests that people who engage in anal intercourse should be advised against introducing rigid or large objects into the rectum as this increases the risk of trauma,” he said. “They should also be encouraged to treat pain or bleeding as a warning to stop and seek medical evaluation.”

SOURCE: bit.ly/20u5d4L American Journal of Gastroenterology, published online January 12, 2016.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-analsex-incontinence-idUSKCN0VD2RH

The Consequences of Heterosexual Anal Sex for Women

https://www.medinstitute.org/2016/08/the-consequences-of-heterosexual-anal-sex-for-women/

 

MI Science Staff: August 2016

Anal sex is currently a “hot topic” of discussion for it is increasingly prevalent among young men and women, and older adults.1 In 2007, a study based on the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), found that one-third of U.S. men and women had experienced heterosexual anal sex.2 In the study, starting from the age 15, the percentage of participants reporting heterosexual anal sex increased with age, was significantly higher among 20-24 year olds and peaked among 30 to 34 year olds. Another study conducted by the University of Indiana asked questions on heterosexual anal sex and found that the percentage having anal intercourse within the past year demonstrated a similar age breakdown as that of the NSFG.3

Adolescents are also practicing heterosexual anal sex; and again, the prevalence increases with age. Only 5% of females ages 16-17 reported receptive anal intercourse over the past year, while 18% of females aged 18-19 years reported the same activity.3 A smaller study sample from a 2007 study looking at “main” and “casual” sexual relations among urban minority adolescent females found that teen girls with “casual” partners and those with a “main” partner had a similar percentage experiencing anal intercourse (12% and 16% respectively). The frequency of heterosexual anal intercourse increased in teens with “main” partners.4

Are there health concerns regarding heterosexual anal intercourse? Of course – as with all types of sexual activity – there are both emotional and physical pitfalls. People need to be educated about the dangers of anal intercourse, so they can make an informed decision about whether or not to participate in the activity. Heterosexual anal intercourse predominantly impacts the health of young females as compared to young males. These same risks can affect women of any age. Some examples follow:

A) A small Guttmacher Institute study (28 women) from 2009 reports that 25% of the women interviewed had been forced into having anal intercourse at least once. It goes on to say, “Coercion and violence notwithstanding, many participants reported pain and discomfort, including emotional distress, during anal intercourse.” 5 Furthermore, a qualitative study from the United Kingdom concludes, “Young people’s narratives normalized coercive, painful and unsafe anal heterosex. This study suggests an urgent need for harm reduction efforts targeting anal sex to help encourage discussion about mutuality and consent, reduce risky and painful techniques and challenge views that normalize coercion.” 1 It is the woman who is being coerced and feels the pain.

B) Anal intercourse can eventually lead to fecal incontinence. A February 2016 study concludes: “The findings support the assessment of anal intercourse as a factor contributing to fecal incontinence in adults, especially among men.” 6 In the case of heterosexual anal intercourse it is the woman who is at risk to develop fecal incontinence.

C) The American Cancer Society reports, “Receptive anal intercourse also increases the risk of anal cancer in both men and women, particularly in those younger than 30.” 7 HPV (human papillomavirus) is the main cause of anal cancer; but apparently, anal intercourse in particular increases the likelihood that the virus will attack the anus or rectum. Multiple sexual partners is also listed as a risk factor for anal cancer. Again, it is the woman experiencing heterosexual anal intercourse who is at risk.

D) The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) just released (August 2016) a new fact sheet on “Anal Sex and HIV Risk”. The first statement on the page says, “Anal sex is the riskiest sexual behavior for getting and transmitting HIV for men and women.” It goes on to say that receptive anal sex is 13 times more risky than insertive anal sex for acquiring HIV infection.8 In heterosexual anal intercourse, it is the woman who is always experiencing the highest sexual risk for the transmission of HIV, receptive anal intercourse. Furthermore, receptive anal intercourse carries a risk 17 times greater than receptive vaginal intercourse. Moreover, receptive anal intercourse even carries a risk 2 times greater than that of needle-sharing during injection drug use.9

In August 2016 the CDC also reported that using condoms consistently reduced the risk of acquiring HIV on an average of 63% for insertive anal intercourse and 72% for receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive partner. Because “condoms are not 100% effective” the CDC advises that one “consider using other prevention methods to further reduce your risk.” That would require taking a medication, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which has to be taken consistently. Obviously, protecting oneself against acquiring HIV when practicing anal sex is complex. Therefore, heterosexual anal sex is obviously very high risk to the woman, 8 especially in locations where HIV prevalence is high. (At best, HIV remains a serious chronic disease requiring a lifetime of treatment and medical follow up; at worst it can result in mortality.)

E) The CDC reports that in addition to the same sexually transmitted infections that are passed through vaginal sex (gonorrhea, etc.), anal sex can also expose participants to hepatitis A, B and C; parasites like Giardia and intestinal amoebas; bacteria like Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli.8

There is a lot of misinformation on the internet on heterosexual anal intercourse. As a result the Medical Institute is concerned that the public in general, and adolescents and young adults in particular, are not receiving the whole truth about heterosexual anal sex. Therefore, MI would like to encourage sex educators, health providers, counselors, youth workers and parents to include specific information about anal sex in their communication with adolescents and young adults. (Receptive anal sex carries the same risks for both men and women). For women there appears to be a high degree of coercion and emotional distress associated with heterosexual anal intercourse; this aspect should be included in healthy and unhealthy relationship education.

In summary, the information provided shows receptive anal intercourse to be a very high-risk sexual activity for women as well as men: fecal incontinence, anal cancer, HIV infection, etc. Awareness of these substantial health risks can enable women of all ages to emphatically say no to anal intercourse.

References:

1. Marston C and Lewis R, “Anal heterosex among young people and implications for health promotion: a qualitative study in the UK., BMJ Open, 2014 http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/4/8/e004996.full

2. Leichliter JS, Chandra A, Liddon N, et al, “Prevalence and Correlates of Heterosexual Anal and Oral Sex in Adolescents and Adults in the United States,” Journal of Infec Dis (2007) 196 (12):1852-1859.

3. Herbenick D, Reece M, Schick V, et al, “Sexual Behavior in the United States: Results from a National Probability Sample of Men and Women Ages 14-94,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine October 2010, Vol. 7, Supple 5, pages 255-265.

4. Houston AM, Fang J, Husman C and Peralta L, “More than just vaginal intercourse. Anal intercourse and condom use patterns in the context of “main” and “casual” sexual relations among urban minority adolescent females,” Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 20, 299-304 (2007).

5. Maynard E, Carballo-Dieguez A, Ventuneac A, et al, “Women’s Experiences with Anal Sex: Motivations and Implications for STD Prevention,” Perspec Sex Reprod Health Volume 41, Issue 3, September 2009, Pages 142-149

6. Markland AD, Dunivan GC, Vaughan CP and Rogers RG, “Anal Intercourse and Fecal Incontinence: Evidence from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology 111, 269-274 (February 2016) http://www.nature.com/ajg/journal/v111/n2/full/ajg2015419a.html

7. American Cancer Society, “What are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?” http://www.cancer.org/cancer/analcancer/detailedguide/anal-cancer-risk-factors

8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Anal Sex and HIV Risk,” http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/analsex.html

9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “HIV Risk Behaviors,” http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/policies/law/risk.html